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Shuai Jiao's History PDF Print E-mail
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sábado, 03 mayo 2008

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 Shuai jiao (Chinese: 摔跤 or 摔角; pinyin: Shuāijiāo; Wade-Giles: Shuai-chiao) is the modern Chinese term for wrestling. In a Western context, the term refers specifically to Chinese and Mongolian styles of wrestling. These styles have a long history and have undergone several changes in both name and form. Ancient Shuai jiao is claimed to be the progenitor of Sumo, and quite possibly Jujitsu and Judo.[citation needed]


The earliest Chinese term for wrestling, "jǐao dǐ" (horn butting), refers to an ancient sport in which contestants wore horned headgear with which they attempted to butt their opponents. Legend states that "jiao di" was used in 2697 BC by the Yellow Emperor's army to gore the soldiers of a rebel army led by Chi You.[1] In later times, young people would play a similar game, emulating the contests of domestic cattle, without the headgear. Jiao di has been described as an originating source of wrestling and latter forms of martial arts in China.[2]

The practice of Jiao li in the Zhou Dynasty was recorded in the Classic of Rites[3]
The practice of Jiao li in the Zhou Dynasty was recorded in the Classic of Rites[3]

"Jiao li" (角力) was a grappling martial art that was developed in the Zhou Dynasty (between the twelfth and third century BCE). An official part of Zhou military's training program under the order of the king[3][4], jiao li is generally considered to be the oldest existing Chinese martial art and is among the oldest systematic martial arts in the world. Jiao li supplemented throwing techniques with strikes, blocks, joint locks and attacks on pressure points.[1] These exercises were practiced in the winter by soldiers who also practiced archery and studied military strategy.

Jiao li eventually became a public sport in the Qin Dynasty (221-207 BCE)[4], held for court amusement as well as for recruiting the best fighters. Competitors wrestled each other on a raised platform called a "leitai" for the potential reward of being hired as a bodyguard to the emperor or a martial arts instructor for the Imperial Military. Some contests would last a week or so, with over a thousand participants. Jiao li was taught to soldiers in China over many centuries and its popularity among the Manchu military guaranteed its influence on later Chinese martial arts through the end of the Qing dynasty.

The term "shuai jiao" was chosen by the Goushu Institute of Nanjing in 1928 when competition rules were standardized. Today, shuai jiao is popular with the Mongols, where it is called "böhke," who hold competitions regularly during cultural events.[5] The art continues to be taught in the police and military academies of China.


The word "shuai," , stands for "to throw onto the ground", while "jiao" may be one of two characters: the first and oldest, , stands for "horns" and the second and recent, , stands for "wrestle or trip using the legs". Shuai jiao therefore means either "to throw onto the ground using horns" or "to throw onto the ground through wrestling with legs".

If one is figurative rather than literal with the translation of "horns" it could be interpreted to connote raw, animal-like competition. This more figurative translation yields a third possible translation of the term shuai jiao as meaning "competing to throw".

Last Updated ( jueves, 08 mayo 2008 )